"Compared with [other acetylcholinergic substances], HupA has better penetration through the blood-brain barrier, higher oral bioavailability, and longer duration of AChE inhibitory action. HupA has been found to improve cognitive deficits in a broad range of animal models. [...] The phase IV clinical trials in China have demonstrated that HupA significantly improved memory deficits in elderly people with benign senescent forgetfulness [...] with minimal peripheral cholinergic side effects and no unexpected toxicity."
Zhao Q, Tang XC.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Nov 29;455(2-3):101-7.
Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 79, No. 4, pp. 469–479, 2007. doi:10.1351/pac200779040469
Ma T, Gong K, Yan Y, Zhang L, Tang P, Zhang X, Gong Y.
Brain Res. 2013 Apr 19;1506:35-43. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.02.026. Epub 2013 Feb 27.
Ved HS, Koenig ML, Dave JR, Doctor BP.
Neuroreport. 1997 Mar 3;8(4):963-8.
Peng Y, Lee DY, Jiang L, Ma Z, Schachter SC, Lemere CA.
Neuroscience. 2007 Dec 5;150(2):386-95. Epub 2007 Sep 14.
"Clinical efficacy was evaluated by comparing the results at baseline, after 30 days, at the end of treatment, and at the end of the follow-up period on [8 different] psychometric tests. [...] The patients receiving L-α-GPC showed a significant improvement of cognitive functions, behavior, and personality at the end of the treatment, compared with baseline values. This improvement was still apparent at the end of the follow-up period."
Schettini G, Ventra C, Florio T, Grimaldi M, Meucci O, Scorziello A, Postiglione A, Marino A.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1992 Sep;43(1):139-51.
De Jesus Moreno Moreno M.
Clin Ther. 2003 Jan;25(1):178-93.
Lucchi L, Pascale A, Battaini F, Govoni S, Trabucchi M.
Life Sci. 1993;53(24):1821-32.
Di Perri R, Coppola G, Ambrosio LA, Grasso A, Puca FM, Rizzo M.
J Int Med Res. 1991 Jul-Aug;19(4):330-41.
"B. monniera significantly improved speed of visual information processing measured by the IT task, learning rate and memory consolidation measured by the AVLT (P<0.05), and state anxiety (P<0.001) compared to placebo, with maximal effects evident after 12 weeks. [...] These findings suggest that B. monniera may improve higher order cognitive processes that are critically dependent on the input of information from our environment such as learning and memory."
Morgan A, Stevens J.
J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0342.
Calabrese C, Gregory WL, Leo M, Kraemer D, Bone K, Oken B.
J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jul;14(6):707-13. doi: 10.1089/acm.2008.0018.
Raghav S, Singh H, Dalal PK, Srivastava JS, Asthana OP.
Indian J Psychiatry. 2006 Oct;48(4):238-42. doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.31555.
Stough C, Lloyd J, Clarke J, Downey LA, Hutchison CW, Rodgers T, Nathan PJ.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Aug;156(4):481-4.
"The subjects of the Yamabushitake group took four 250 mg tablets containing 96% of Yamabushitake dry powder three times a day for 16 weeks. After termination of the intake, the subjects were observed for the next 4 weeks. At weeks 8, 12 and 16 of the trial, the Yamabushitake group showed significantly increased scores on the cognitive function scale compared with the placebo group. [...] Laboratory tests showed no adverse effect of Yamabushitake. The results obtained in this study suggest that Yamabushitake is effective in improving mild cognitive impairment."
Wong KH, Naidu M, David RP, Bakar R, Sabaratnam V.
Int J Med Mushrooms. 2012;14(5):427-46.
Mori K, Obara Y, Moriya T, Inatomi S, Nakahata N.
Biomed Res. 2011 Feb;32(1):67-72.
Federico Brandalise, Valentina Cesaroni, Andrej Gregori, Margherita Repetti, Chiara Romano, Germano Orrù, Laura Botta, Carolina Girometta, Maria Lidia Guglielminetti, Elena Savino, and Paola Rossi.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017; 2017: 3864340.
Junrong Zhang, Shengshu An, Wenji Hu, Meiyu Teng, Xue Wang, Yidi Qu, Yang Liu, Ye Yuan, and Di Wang.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Nov; 17(11): 1810.
Tzeng Tsai-Teng, Chen Chin-Chu, Lee Li-Ya, Chen Wan-Ping, Lu Chung-Kuang, Shen Chien-Chang, Huang F. Chi-Ying, Chen Chien-Chih, and Young-Ji Shiao.
J Biomed Sci. 2016; 23: 49.
"After 3 month-treatment in combined treatment group, the scores of executive ability, attention, abstract, delayed memory, orientation in the MoCA [Montreal cognitive assessment] were significantly increased compared with those before treatment and those in control group after treatment. [...] Besides, blood flow velocity of anterior cerebral artery increased significantly than that before treatment and that in control group after treatment."
Napryeyenko O, Borzenko I; GINDEM-NP Study Group.
Herrschaft H, Nacu A, Likhachev S, Sholomov I, Hoerr R, Schlaefke S.
J Psychiatr Res. 2012 Jun;46(6):716-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.03.003. Epub 2012 Mar 27.
Kanowski S, Herrmann WM, Stephan K, Wierich W, Hörr R.
Pharmacopsychiatry. 1996 Mar;29(2):47-56.
Brautigam MR, Blommaert FA, Verleye G, Castermans J, Jansen Steur EN, Kleijnen J.
Phytomedicine. 1998 Dec;5(6):425-34. doi: 10.1016/S0944-7113(98)80038-X.